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Europe- History, Countries, Population, Climate, Map, Land & Facts

About Europe

Europe, the second smallest of the world’s continents, consists of the westward-projecting peninsulas of Eurasia (the nice ground that it shares with Asia) and occupies nearly one-fifteenth of the world’s total acreage. It's featheredged on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic, and on the south (west to east) by the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Kuma-Manych Depression, and also the Caspian Sea. The continent’s eastern boundary (north to south) runs on the range so roughly southwest on the Emba (Zhem) watercourse, terminating at the northern Caspian coast.


Map of Europe
Map of Europe

Europe’s largest islands and archipelagoes embody Nova Zembla, Franz Josef Land, Svalbard, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Brits Isles, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Crete, and Cyprus. Its major peninsulas embody Jutland and also the Scandinavian, Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas. Indented by varied bays, fjords, and seas, continental Europe’s extremely irregular landfall is concerning 24,000 miles long.


satelite map of Europe
Satellite map of Europe

Among the continents, Europe is an associate anomaly. Larger solely than Australia, it's a tiny low appendage of Eurasia. Nevertheless, the ground and insular western extremity of the continent, thrusting toward the North Atlantic Ocean, provides-thanks to its latitude and its physical geography a relatively genial human home ground, and therefore the long processes of human history came to mark off the region because of the home of a particular civilization. Despite its internal diversity, Europe has therefore functioned, from the time it initially emerged within the human consciousness, as a world apart, concentrating to borrow a phrase from patron saint Marlowe “infinite material resource in an exceedingly very little space.”


As an abstract construct, Europa, because a lot of learning of the traditional Greeks initially formed it, stood in sharp distinction to each Asia and African country, the name then applied to the proverbial northern part of Africa. Galilean is currently thought to possess meant “Mainland,” instead of the sooner interpretation, “Sunset.” It seems to possess urged itself to the Greeks, in their maritime world, as an associate acceptable designation for the intensive northerly lands that lay on the far side, lands with characteristics mistily proverbial nevertheless clearly completely different from those inherent within the ideas of Asia and Libya both of that, comparatively prosperous and civilized, were associated closely with the culture of the Greeks and their predecessors.


From the Greek perspective then, Galilean was culturally backward and barely settled. It had been a barbarian world that is, a non-Greek one, with its inhabitants creating “bar-bar” noises in unintelligible tongues. Traders and travelers conjointly reported that Europe on the far side Balkan country possessed distinctive physical units, with mountain systems and lowland watercourse basins a lot larger than those acquainted to inhabitants of the Mediterranean region. It had been clear also that a succession of climates, markedly completely different from those of the Mediterranean borderlands, was to be intimate as Europe was penetrated from the south. The spacious eastern steppes and, to the west and north, primal forests heretofore solely marginally touched by human occupancy further underlined environmental contrasts.

Parthenon-acropolis-athens-greece
Parthenon-Acropolis-Athens-Greece

As to the territorial limits of Europe, they will appear comparatively clear on its seaward flanks, however, several island teams so much to the north and west—Svalbard, the Faroes, Iceland, and also the Madeira and Canary islands—are thought-about European, whereas island (though tied politically to Denmark) is conventionally allotted to North America. What is more, the Mediterranean coastlands of geographic region and southwestern Asia conjointly exhibit some European physical and cultural affinities. Turkey and Cyprus above all, whereas geologically Asian, possess parts of European culture and will be thought to be elements of Europe. Indeed, Turkey has sought-after membership within the world organization (EU), and also the Republic of Cyprus joined the organization in 2004.


La Palma, Spain
La Palma, Spain

Europe’s boundaries are particularly unsure, and thus abundant debated, on the east, wherever the continent merges, while not sundering physical boundaries, with components of western Asia. The eastward limits currently adopted by most geographers exclude the Caucasus region and comprehend a little portion of Kazakh, wherever the EU boundary fashioned by the northern Caspian coast is connected thereto of the Urals by Kazakhstan’s Emba stream and Mughalzhar (Mugodzhar) Hills, themselves a southern extension of the Urals. Among the choice boundaries projected by geographers that have gained wide acceptance may be a theme that sees the crest of the larger Caucasus vary because the distinction between Europe and Asia, inserting Ciscaucasia, the northern part of the Caucasus region, in Europe and Transcaucasia, the southern half, in Asia. Another wide supported theme puts the western portion of the Caucasus region in Europe and therefore the jap part—that is, the majority of Azerbaijan and tiny parts of Republic of Armenia, Georgia, and Russia’s Caspian coast—in Asia. Still another theme with several adherents locates the continental boundary on the Aras stream and therefore the Turkish border, thereby putting the Republic of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in Europe.


Europe’s Japanese boundary, however, isn't a cultural, political, or economic separation on the land comparable, as an example, to the insulating significance of the chain of mountains, that mark a northern limit to South Asian civilization. Slavic-based civilization dominates a lot of the territory occupied by previous Russia from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean. That civilization is distinguished from the remainder of Europe by legacies of a medieval Mongol-Tatar domination that precluded the sharing of many of the innovations and developments of European “Western civilization”; it became distinctive throughout the relative isolation of the Soviet amount. In partitioning the world into important giant geographic units, therefore, hottest geographers treated previous Russia as a definite territorial entity, such as a continent, that was somewhat cut loose Europe to the west and from Asia to the south and east; that distinction has been maintained for Russia, that ingrained three-fourths of Russia.


Europe occupies some four million sq. miles (10 million sq. km) inside the standard borders appointed thereto. That broad territory reveals no straightforward unity of earth science structure, landform, relief, or climate. Rocks of all earth science periods area unit exposed, and therefore the operation of earth science forces throughout the associate vast succession of eras has contributed to the molding of the landscapes of mountain, plateau, and lowland and has bequeathed a spread of mineral reserves. Climatically, Europe advantages by having solely a little proportion of its surface either too cold or too hot and dry for effective settlement and use. Regional climatical contrasts yet exist: oceanic, Mediterranean, and continental varieties occur wide, as do gradations from one to the opposite. Associated vegetation and soil forms conjointly show continual selection, however solely parts of the dominant dry land that clothed most of the continent once humans 1st appeared currently stay.


All in all, Europe enjoys a substantial and long-exploited resource base of soil, forest, sea, and minerals, however, its individuals are progressively its principal resource. The continent, excluding Russia, contains but a common fraction of the entire population of the globe, however, normally its individuals are well educated and extremely hot. Europe additionally supports high densities of population, targeted in urban-industrial regions. A growing share of individuals in urban areas are utilized in an exceedingly big selection of service activities, that have returned to dominate the economies of most countries. In producing Associate in Nursingd agriculture Europe still occupies an eminent, if not essentially predominant, position. The creation of the EU Economic Community in 1957 and therefore the EU in 1993 greatly increased economic cooperation between several of the continent’s countries. Europe’s continued economic achievements are proved by its high customary of living and its successes in science, technology, and therefore the arts.


Parliament of European
Parliament of European

This article treats the physical and human-earth science of Europe. For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see specific articles by name e.g., Italy, Poland, and the UK. For discussion of major cities of the continent, see specific articles by name e.g., Rome, Warsaw, and London. The principal articles discussing the historical and cultural development of the continent embody the history of Europe; European exploration; Western colonialism; Aegean civilizations; Hellenic civilization; ancient Rome; Byzantine Empire; and Holy empire. Connected topics are mentioned in such articles as those on faith (e.g., Judaism and Roman Catholicism) and literature (e.g., Greek literature; Dutch literature; and Spanish literature).

 

History of Europe

As for Europe, a short written account of its important events begins throughout prehistoric times with the emergence of man (early man), roughly 40,000 years agone.

Early inhabitants throughout the Palaeolithic, in a shot, to survive, sorted along into tiny societies like bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and trying to find wild animals.

The follow of cultivating the soil, manufacturing crops, and raising placental began within the period some 9,000 years ago; stone tools were used and folks began to measure in tiny teams, or villages.

As the man continued to journey east-to-west across Eurasia (a combination of Asia and Europe), information of tools and new ways of organization arrived; civilizations flourished as metal axes and arrowheads improved survival.

In the eighth century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages. Classical Greek culture had a strong influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to several components of the Mediterranean region and geographic region. In short, Greek culture provided the muse of modern civilization.

Of the nice civilizations to develop in Europe, the antecedently mentioned Roman empire had the foremost lasting influence. Throughout its typically troubled 500-year amount of innovation, it modified the continent and had a profound and lasting influence on the event of contemporary design, language, law, and faith.

In Western Europe, a good series of tribes and social group alliances rapt into positions of power within the remnants of the previous Roman Empire; little kingdoms were established, and therefore the earth science of Western Europe was near to amendment.

The Kingdom of the Franks was a southeastern European territory colonized and dominated by the Franks. They'd evolve into the dominion of France, and elements of it'd morph into the Holy empire, a forerunner to the European nation we all know nowadays.

Anglo-Saxons shortly crossed (what is now) English people Channel to southern Great Britain and established a series of kingdoms in what would eventually turn into the dominion of European nation by AD 927; one hundred years later the Kingdoms of Poland and European country would conjointly become.

The Norse Age in geographical region and Scandinavia spanned the late eighth to mid-13th centuries. With very little interest in land acquisition, the Scandinavian (Norse) Vikings sharply explored Europe for trade and material resources. The Vikings conjointly reached Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland, and Asia Minor (Turkey).

The Normans (a Norse people) gave their name to Normandy, a district in northern France. At the start rising within the half of the tenth century, that they had a major impact on several elements of Europe, from the Norman Conquest of a European nation to southern Italia and Sicily.

By the end of the fifteenth century, nice powers emerged in Europe, with a European country, France, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Espana enjoying predominant roles in world affairs from the fifteenth century onward, particularly once they start victimization.

The European colonial time, the 1500s to the mid-1900s, was the time once the ECU powers mentioned higher than established colonies in Asia, Africa, and therefore the Americas. Between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, European nations, at varied times, controlled the Americas (north and south), most of Africa, the archipelago, and huge parts of Asia. 


As when people wanted freedom across the world, the ECU colonial era began to crumble. Specifically, the British Empire, the primary genuinely world empire, began to lose its powers in Africa, an Asian country, and far of the center East, and that they before long fragmented away. 


Also damaging to the continent were World Wars I and II, as they were mostly centered upon Europe. The big costs of each war greatly contributed to a decline in Western European dominance in affairs, and a few Japanese European countries haven't however absolutely recovered.


After the Berlin Wall was reduced on November nine, 1989, and once the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Europe modified for the higher. European cultures and factions before long integrated, the Council of Europe was shaped and therefore the European Union (EU) blossomed in Western Europe.


Today, it's safe to mention that Europe could be a major economical and political center of power. As for its individuals, they're AN innovative, optimistic, and resilient cluster World Health Organization modified our world for the higher over once, and for sure they're going to make once more.


Geologic history

The earth science record of the continent of Europe could be a classic example of however a continent has grown up through time. The Precambrian period rocks in Europe range age from concerning 3.8 billion to 541 million years. They're succeeded by rocks of the Paleozoic era, that continuing to concerning 252 million years ago; of the Age of Reptiles, which lasted till concerning sixty-six million years ago; and of the geological era (i.e., the past sixty-six million years). The current form of Europe failed to finally emerge till concerning five million years agone. the kinds of rocks, tectonic landforms, and substance basins that developed throughout the earth science history of Europe powerfully influence human activities nowadays.


The largest space of oldest rocks within the continent is that the Baltic protect, which has been eroded down to a low relief. The youngest rocks occur within the Alpine system, which still survives as high mountains. Between those belts area unit basins of substance rocks that kind rolling hills, as within the Paris Basin and southeastern European nation, or in-depth plains, as within the Russian Platform. The sea may be a submarine substance basin on the shallow-water continental margin of the Atlantic. Iceland may be a distinctive prevalence in Europe: it's a volcanic island located on the eastern Ridge at intervals the still-opening Atlantic.

 

Europe Geography Notes

The Russian ground west of the Ural Mountains is usually spoken as European Russia in most instructional atlases and by the overwhelming majority of earth science specialists. It's not a separate country, however rather referred to as that as a result of its long-term political, cultural, and geographical mixing with the bordering European countries. For reference functions, it's shown higher than, however, the whole country (as a whole) remains thought of as a part of the continent of Asia.

European Russia comprises roughly 3,960,000 sq. km (1,528,560 sq. miles) and spans just about four-hundredth of Europe. Its jap border is outlined by the Ural Mountains and within the South, it's outlined by the border with the Asian nation. Note that almost 77% of the whole Russian population (about 110,000,000 folks out of AN approximate total Russian population of 141,000,000) lives in European Russia.

 

General considerations

Tectonic framework

Precambrian rocks occur in 3 basic tectonic environments. The primary is in shields, just like the Baltic defend, that are giant areas of stable Precambrian eon rocks typically enclosed by later orogenic (mountain-forming) belts. The second is as a basement to younger coverings of Phanerozoic sediments (i.e., deposits that are ordered down since the start of the Paleozoic). As an example, the sediments of the Russian Platform are underlain by Precambrian eon basement, which extends from the Baltic defend to the Urals, and Precambrian eon rocks underlie the Phanerozoic sediments in southeastern European nation. The Ukrainian formation is Associate in a Nursing elated block of Precambrian eon basement that rises on top of the encircling plain of younger sediments. The third setting happens as relicts (residual landforms) in younger orogenic belts. As an example, there are Precambrian eon rocks within the Bohemian formation that are one billion years recent and rocks within the Channel Islands within the English Channel that is 1.6 billion years recent, each of those is remnants from the center Proterozoic Era inside the late geological era Hercynian belt. Within the Hercynian belt in Bavaria, detrital zircons are dated to 3.84 billion years agone, however, the supply of these rocks isn't proverbial.


Paleozoic substance rocks occur either in substance basins just like the Russian Platform which has ne'er been stricken by any periods of mountain formation and so has sediments that are still flat-lying and fossiliferous or at intervals orogenic belts like the Caledonian and Hercynian, wherever they usually are malformed by folding and jab, partly recrystallized and subjected to intrusion by granites. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments occur either in an exceedingly healthy state in substance basins unaffected by orogenesis, as at intervals the Russian Platform and below the North Sea, or in an exceedingly extremely malformed and metamorphosed state, as within the Alpine system.

Chronological summary

The geological development of Europe is also summarized as follows. Archean rocks (those quite a pair of 2.5 billion years old) the oldest of the Precambrian eon and basset within the northern Baltic defend, Ukraine, and northwestern European nation. 2 major Proterozoic (i.e., from regarding a pair of 2.5 billion to 541 million years ago) orogenic belts extend across the central and southern Baltic defend. Thus, the defend contains a composite origin, containing remnants of many Precambrian eon orogenic belts.


About 540 to five hundred million years past a series of recent oceans opened, and their ultimate closure gave rise to the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Uralian orogenic belts. There's sizable proof suggesting that those belts were developed by plate-tectonic processes and that they every have a history that lasted many uncountable years. Formation of the belts gave rise to the supercontinent of Pangea; its fragmentation, starting from two hundred million years past, gave rise to a replacement ocean, the Tethys ocean. Closure of that ocean regarding fifty million years past, by geologic process and plate-tectonic processes, crystal rectifier to the Alpine orogeny-e.g., the formation of the Alpine orogenic system, that extends from the Atlantic to Turkey and contains several separate orogenic belts (which stay as mountain chains), together with the range of mountains, the Baetic Cordillera, the chain, the Swiss-Austrian Alps, the Apennine vary, the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps, and therefore the Taurus and Pontic mountains. Throughout the time that the Tethys was a gap (about one hundred eighty million years ago), the Atlantic Ocean conjointly began to open.

paleogeography and plaeoceanography


The Atlantic remains gap on the middle Atlantic Ridge beneath the ocean, with Iceland constituting a district of the ridge that's raised higher than water level. The youngest tectonic activity in Europe is drawn by the contemporary volcanic eruptions in Iceland; by volcanoes like Etna and Vesuvius; and by earthquakes, as within the Aegean region and the Alpine system, that result from current stresses between the Eurasian and African plates.


Stratigraphy and shape

Precambrian

Some granitic gneisses, that over three billion years previous, appear within the northern Baltic defend, the Ukrainian formation, and northwestern European nation. Those rocks were recrystallized at a depth of regarding twelve miles (20 km) within the Archean crust, however, their tectonic setting is poorly understood. The Baltic defend exhibits in turn younger orogenic belts toward the south, from the Archean relicts within the north to the Late Proterozoic Sveconorwegian belt in the southwestern Scandinavian country. A serious orogenic belt within the north, the Svecofennian, developed within the Early Proterozoic Era (2.5 to 1.6 billion years ago); it currently occupies the majority of the Baltic defend, particularly in Suomi and Scandinavian country, wherever it extends from the peninsula to the Gulf of Suomi close to Helsinki. The younger Sveconorwegian could be a north–a south-trending orogenic belt that developed between 1.2 billion and 850 million years past. It occupies southern Scandinavian country and also the adjacent space of southwestern Scandinavian country between national capital (Norway) and urban center (Sweden). On its northern facet, it's been reactivated nearly on the far side recognition at intervals the era Caledonian orogenic belt. The Ukrainian formation and also the little Laxfordian belt in northwestern European nation consist in the main of granitic rocks and extremely malformed and metamorphosed schists and gneisses that originally were sediments and volcanic; their age is comparable to it of the Svecofennian belt. In northwestern European nation there is also a north–a south-trending belt of Proterozoic brown sandstones and conglomerates that's regarding one billion years old; those sediments could also be the erosional merchandise or molasse of a 1.2-billion-year-old orogenic belt, of that there some relicts at intervals the Caledonian belt of a European nation. The Bohemian formation could be a diamond-shaped block within the heart of Europe, that has been heavily plagued by the late-era Hercynian geologic process.


Many of the rocks shaped within the Late Archean (about 2.7 billion years ago) or Early Proterozoic (Svecofennian times) or maybe later within the Proterozoic (about one billion years ago) were powerfully distorted in many Precambrian eon orogenies and so schists, and amphibolites, amid a range of granites. Close to the tip of the Precambrian—about 800 to 541 million years ago—there was the widespread deposition of conglomerates, sandstones, clays, and a few volcanic sediments, that compose the Eocambrian (or Vendian) group; those were derived from the erosion of elated Precambrian eon mountains. They're accepted for 2 options. 1st their glacial sediments, which were deposited at a time of worldwide glaciation; they occur in northwestern Scotland (Islay Island), western eire, Scandinavian country (Finnmark and West Spitzbergen), Sweden, France (Normandy), and therefore the Czech Republic (Bohemian Massif). Second is that the prevalence of impressions of soft-bodied organisms, like alga, jellyfish, and worms, that represent the beginnings of creature (many-celled) life before the explosion of life-forms with onerous elements for skeletons that became copious within the early period. Those impressions occur in Charnwood Forest in central European country, southern Wales, northern Scandinavian nation, Ukraine, and several other localities within the Russian Platform. The Precambrian eon rocks of Europe offer an upscale supply of economic minerals that sustain human activities, like major deposits of ore at Kiruna in the northern Scandinavian nation and Kryvyy Rih in Ukraine; tin deposits related to granites in Finland; in-depth copper-nickel compound ores across Finland, particularly at Outokumpu, and in Sweden; and magnetic iron-ore ores containing vanadium and metal in northern Finland.


Paleozoic Era of EU

The Paleozoic era (i.e., from concerning 541 to 252 million years ago) tectonic earth science of Europe are often divided into 2 parts: the foremost orogenic belts of the Caledonian (or Caledonides), the Hercynian (or Hercynides), and also the Uralian (or Uralides); and also the undisturbed, largely subsurface  (and so poorly known) Paleozoic era sediments within the triangular space between the belts within the Russian Platform.

Caledonian orogenic zone

The major issue that controlled the first mid-Paleozoic development of Europe was the gap and shutting of the Iapetus Ocean, which gave rise to the Caledonian orogenic belt that extends from eire and Wales through northern European nation and European nation to western Kingdom of and northward to Finnmark in northern Norway. The belt is confined between the stable blocks of the Baltic protect and therefore the Precambrian eon belt of northwestern European nation. Remnants of the Iapetus seafloor seen in ophiolites (slices of the seafloor that were thrust upward by the action of plate tectonics) at Ballantrae within the Strathclyde region of the European nation and close to an urban center in the Scandinavian nation. Throughout the Cambrian period (about 541 to 485 million years ago), the widening of the Iapetus gave rise to intensive shelf seas on the bordering continents, that deposited a skinny cowl of rock and sedimentary rock with an interesting diversity of fossils of diverse marine invertebrates. The existence of that ocean is often incontestible by the presence of arthropod and graptolite fossils in northern European nations, that was on one aspect of the ocean, that considerably completely different from those in central European nation and southern Scandinavian nation, that was on the opposite aspect. Within the Ordovician (about 485 to 444 million years ago) the ocean began to shut by geological process, giving rise to major magmatic belts with lavas and tuffs within the Lake District of northern European nation and in Snowdonia parkland in northern Wales where there are associated gold and copper mineralization and to several granites within the Highlands of a European nation.


In the Silurian period (about 444 to 419 million years ago) the Iapetus Ocean closed, with the result that the bordering continental blocks collided, giving rise to deformation, geological process, and therefore orogeny of the Caledonian belt. Within the late Silurian period, early land plants and therefore the 1st seafood appeared in lakes on the belt. The rifts of the Orkney Basin developed within the Devonian (about 419 to 359 million years ago) on high of the thickened and unstable crust of the Caledonian orogenic belt in an exceeding manner reminiscent of the Quaternary rifts of Asian country (i.e., those who have appeared within the past 2.6 million years), that has a crust thickened by the Himalayan geologic process of the Paleogene and Neogene periods (about sixty-six to 2.6 million years ago). Erosion of the elated mountain belt within the Devonian crystal rectifier to deposition of sandstones and conglomerates in basins over a good region from nation Isles to the western Russian Platform, usually known as the previous Red arenaceous rock continent.


Hercynian orogenic zone

The Hercynian, or Variscan, orogenic belt evolved throughout the Age of Devonian and Carboniferous periods, from concerning 419 to 299 million years past. The belt extends from the Portuguese Republic and western Spain, southwestern eire, and southwestern England within the west through the Ardennes, France (Brittany, formation Central, Vosges, and Corsica), Sardinia, and Germany (Odenwald, Schwarzwald, and Harz Mountains) to the European country (Bohemian Massif). The geologic process was shaped by plate-tectonic processes that enclosed seafloor spreading, geological phenomenon, and also the collision of plates. Remnants of the first ocean bottom area unit were preserved as ophiolites within the Harz mountain chain in Germany and within the Lizard dry land of southwestern England. Within the Devonian period, a continental margin ran on the side of the belt in Devon and Cornwall (England) on that intensive sandstones derived from the continent were deposited. Within the Carboniferous period, shallow-water limestones were ordered down within the space of the Pennine Chain of England on a shelf or carbonate bank; that formation passes southward into deeper-water shales of the stalk Trench of southwestern England, among that area unit found the pillow lavas (aggregates of ovoid plenty, resembling pillows), gabbros, and serpentinites of the Lizard ophiolite. In Bretagne, there's AN island arc with lavas and granites that resulted from the geologic process of the ocean bottom. The most Hercynian suture zone of the collided plates extends from the side of Bretagne to the formation Central.

Throughout a lot of Europe, there's proof of intensive jabbing, implying that there was considerable thickening of the continental crust and also the formation of a Tibetan-style upland across the Hercynian geologic process. The thickening light-emitting diode to melting of the lower crust and also the formation of huge numbers currently Carboniferous granites, particularly within the formation Central. The upland became to a fault thick and unstable, which caused the formation of rifts that developed into coal-bearing basins—as in Silesia (Poland) and also the formation Central—in the late Carboniferous and period periods (i.e., between concerning 299 and 252 million years ago).

Indeed, the numerous tectonic development of the Hercynian geologic process gave rise to widespread mineral deposits in several environments, that are exploited within the economic development of many countries. Lead and atomic number 30 deposits occur in shelf carbonate sediments in eire and therefore the hills of England; there area unit deposits of copper, lead, and atomic number 30 sulfides that shaped in rifts in Silesia and at the Riotinto Mines in southwestern Spain; and necessary mineral deposits of tin, tungsten, and metal area unit related to crustal soften granites in the county, the geological formation Central, and Espana and the Portuguese Republic.

Uralian orogenic zone

The Uralian orogenic belt, which forms the normal eastern boundary of Europe, extends for concerning a pair of 2,175 miles (3,500 km) from the Lake Aral within the south to the northeasternmost tip of Severny Island, one in every one of the 2 giant islands that represent most of the Novaya Zemlya land within the ocean. It encompasses the Mughalzhar Hills north of the sea Aral, the Ural Mountains (which stretch for a few 1,550 miles from the bend of the Ural stream within the south to the perimeter of the Arctic within the north), the northern digitate extension of the Pay-Khoy Ridge, and Novaya Zemlya. The belt developed late within the Paleozoic as a result of a collision between Asia and Europe.


The earliest rifts in old Precambrian basement rocks began concerning five hundred million years past and developed into the ground of a replacement ocean. Island arcs were shaped within the later Silurian period, and myriad ophiolitic slabs of ocean bottom were thrust onto the continental margins. In Devonian period times, a substantial quantity of thrusting and geological processes occurred, and therefore the final components of the ocean bottom were subducted; the results of that activity was that within the period there was a final collision between the continents of Europe and Asia that gave rise to the Uralian orogenic belt.


Ural Mountains


Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras

In the Mesozoic era, the Tethys ocean evolved in what's currently southern Europe, and through the era, that ocean was destroyed by the geological process as several tiny plates collided. Those events gave rise to the current tectonic mosaic that extends eastward from the Atlas Mountains of geographic region, the Baetic Cordillera of southern European country, and therefore the Pyrenees via a chain of mountains of maritime France, Swiss Confederation, and European nation to the chain of mountains, the range, the Dinaric Alps, the mountain range, and therefore the Bull and Pontic mountains of Turkey and eventually to the Caucasus. The most reason behind the Alpine geologic process throughout the Age of Mammals was the northward compression of the continent into Europe.


Bihor Massif

The first rifting of the older supercontinent, Pangea, began within the Triassic period 252 to 201 million years ago. Throughout that point, salt and evaporites were deposited in lakes in rift valleys. By 220 million years agone, within the Late Triassic, the continental margins of the new, slim Tethys ocean were ordinarily lined by shallow water over remaining carbonate shelf sediments. Throughout the geological period (about 201 to 145 million years ago) those carbonate shelves began to fragment, and within the Cretaceous period (about one hundred forty-five to sixty-six million years ago) the Davy Jones's locker was subducted in several places. That gave rise to volcanic island arcs, like those of current Indonesia, and slabs of the Tethys Davy Jones's locker were thrust as ophiolites onto the continental margins. Depth remnants of these ophiolites are often seen these days, particularly within the northern range and within the Balkans, Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus.


Collisions between different continental microplates happened within the Eocene and Oligocene epochs (about fifty-six to twenty-three million years ago). As an example, the Iberian peninsula revolved to provide rise to the range, the peninsula drove northward and compressed into Europe, inflicting the expansion of the Swiss-Austrian Alps, and the peninsula affected westward and gave rise to the Aegean arc and the mountains of Greece. That state of affairs illustrates the interlacing and reciprocality of all of these movements and structures in Europe with those outside the continent.


Pyrenees

In the Miocene Epoch, several of the first Mediterranean basins e.g., Balearic, Tyrrhenian, Ionian, and Levantine became isolated from the most Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans. In those basins were set down immense deposits of salt and mineral in evaporites up to over a mile thick. Many alternative necessary mineral deposits within the European Alpine system can also be associated with the stages of earth science evolution delineate on top of. Lead and atomic number 30 deposits occur in Triassic shelf limestones at Blei Hill in western FRG. Mineral ores area unit found within the ophiolites of the Balkans, Greece, and Turkey. Copper ores are shaped in pillow-bearing volcanic rock lavas of the Tethyan ocean floor; copper mines are working since antiquity in Cyprus, which Lent its name to the part. The Tethys, however, was a comparatively slim ocean, and so its restricted geological process wasn't able to create, for instance, several granites and volcanic rocks, which could have contained helpful mineral deposits.

Cenozoic igneous provinces    

From sixty to fifty million years past there have been necessary igneous extrusions and intrusions in northwestern Britain. In European nation and northwestern European nation, volcanic rock flows (e.g., within the Giant’s Causeway and also the northern part of the islet of Skye) are associated with northwest–southeast-trending volcanic rock dikes and plenty of eruptive (igneous rock shaped deep among the crust) complexes, which are probably the roots of volcanoes. The dikes extend southeastward across northern European nations and continue underneath the sea. Connected lavas occur within the Faroe Islands. Those igneous rocks shaped within the faulted and weakened continental margin of northwestern Europe contemporaneously with rifting and seafloor spreading that gave rise to the Atlantic.


rocky-coast-against-calm-sea-during-sunny-day

Iceland

The mid-Atlantic Ridge plate boundary, separating the North yank and also the Eurasian plates, extends through the center of Iceland. On that ridge, the Atlantic remains growing, and on Iceland that activity is expressed as major rifts, volcanoes, and steam geysers. The whole island is formed of lavas, the oldest of that, on the northwestern coast, came from eruptions regarding 16 million years past. Iceland so preserves a singular record of the last stages of development of one of the world’s major accreting plate boundaries, most of them elsewhere submarine.


yellowstone-hot-spring

Pleistocene glaciation

The Pleistocene occupies the Quaternary period (i.e., the past 2.6 million years), except the past 11,700 years, which are known as the Holocene. Though the precise causes of the ice ages that mark the Pleistocene are controversial, it's familiar that before that succession of glacial stages geographical area had up to a far higher elevation than currently which ice fashioned to nice depths there, as within the remainder of the Atlantic dry land and also the Alpine areas. The Pleistocene was punctuated by heat interglacial periods separating glacial advances; throughout its latter half, humans occupied niches within a lot of southerly components of the continent.


Land of Europe

A distinction exists between the configuration of peninsular, or western, Europe and that of eastern Europe, which may be a lot larger and a lot of continental space. A convenient division is created by a line linking the bottom of the ground of Jutland with the pinnacle of the Adriatic. Continental shelves—former land surfaces that are coated by shallow seas—are a feature of peninsular Europe, whereas the coasts themselves each submerged or sunken, as in southwestern eire and the northwestern Kingdom of Spain, and aborning, as in western Scotland and southern Wales, wherever raised former beaches obviously. East of the Vistula, Europe’s expansive lowlands have one thing of the size and character of these of northern Asia. The continent additionally contains various islands, some—notably the Faroes and Iceland—located at a distance from the solid ground. Fortunately, Europe has no continuous mountain obstacle aligned north-south, corresponding, as an example, to the Western Cordillera of North America and therefore the Andes Mountains of South America, which may limit access into western Europe from the ocean.

 


Map of Europe


Physical features - Europe

Relief

Elevations

Lands lying at high elevations will, of course, be lands of rilievo, however, on the EU continent relief tends to become a lot rugged as elevation will increase. The bigger part of Europe, however, combines low elevation with rilievo. Solely hill lots but 800 feet (240 meters) tall rise gently among the Russian (East European) Plain, that continues northward into European nation, westward into the North European Plain, and southward within the Romanian, Bulgarian, and Hungarian plains. (The East and North European plains area unit celebrated along because the European Plain.) The North European Plain, common to a lot of European nations, northern European nations, and Denmark, broadens in western France and continues, across the slender seas, in southeastern nice United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern and Ireland. Rock bottom piece of ground in Europe, just about lacking relief, stands at the pinnacle of the Caspian Sea; there the Caspian Depression reaches some 95 feet below water level.

The major ground of Scandinavia is generally upland and highland, with its relief greatest at the descent to the Norwegian fjords and therefore the sea; eastward and southward the seas area unit approached a lot of gently. The best points reached in Norway and Scandinavian country Sweden area unit, severally, Galdhø Peak (8,100 feet [2,469 meters]) and Mount Kebne (6,926 feet [2,111 meters]). The best summit in Iceland is Hvannadals Peak, at 6,952 feet (2,119 meters), whereas mountain island, the best peak in nice Great Britain, stands at an elevation of solely 4,406 feet (1,343 meters).

 

Kebnekaise

Kebnekaise

Greater relief is found in those areas within the heart of western and central Europe wherever elated and faulted massifs survive from the Hercynian geological process, a late Paleozoic amount of mountain formation. The worn-down chain of mountains conjointly belong therein class, and their highest purpose, Mount Narodnaya, corresponds about thereto of the geological formation Central in south-central France. Elevations in those area units are chiefly between 500 and a pair of 2,000 feet, and plenty of steep slopes to be seen. 

 

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Southern of Europe

 

The region was additionally home to 2 of the foremost cogent civilizations: the ancient Balkan country and Rome. Ancient Balkan country was one of the foremost scientifically and culturally advanced societies in history. Its alphabet is that the ascendant of all trendy European alphabets. On the opposite hand, ancient Rome had a big impact on Western ideas of military, government, and laws. Its laws and court systems have served because of the foundation of recent Western justice systems.

 

Largest Countries In Southern Europe By land Mesure And Population.

The 3 largest countries in Southern Europe by land area are European countries Spain (505,370 sq. km), Italy (301,340 sq. km), and Balkan country Greece (131,957 sq. km). The 3 smallest countries within the region by area are Vatican city (0.44 sq. km), San Giambattista Marino (61 sq. km), and Malta (316 sq. km).


The Iberian Peninsula is found within the southwest corner of Europe and is home to a European country, Portugal, and European country. European country occupies concerning eighty-fifths of the ground, with a complete space of 505,370 sq. km. The European country is one of Europe’s smallest states. Portugal features a total space of 92,090 sq. km. and a population of quite ten million individuals.

In 206 BCE, the Romans conquered the Carthaginians and colonized the Iberian Peninsula for quite 600 years. Thus, Roman influence is rife throughout the world. AN example of this can be the languages spoken within the region. Castilian, Portuguese, Catalan, and Portuguese derived from Latin that the Romans brought over throughout their conquest.

In addition to the languages, the Romans introduced Christianity to the ground. Today, Roman Catholicism is that the rifest faith in European country and Portugal, with concerning 68 Spaniards and 81 Portuguese individuals distinctive as Catholic.

Balkan peninsula is that the east of Europe’s southern peninsulas. It's composed of the Republic of Albania, Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenija. However, not all countries of the region are enclosed in Southern Europe, and also the list varies with supply.

The Byzantine Empire controlled the land before the Ottoman Turks took over within the 14th and 15th centuries.

In the early twentieth century, the land was divided between the Republic of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and the European nation. In 1992, the European nation separated into Bosna I Hercegovina and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia, Slovenia, and Serbia and Montenegro (which has currently split into 2 freelance countries). The peninsula is jam-packed with various religions and ethnic teams and could be a melting pot of European and Asian civilizations.

Perhaps one of the foremost necessary ancient civilizations within the land was ancient Greece. Greece flourished throughout its Classical amount, a golden age that began around 480 BCE and lasted two hundred years. Throughout this point, ancient Greece created substantial advancements in Western philosophy, literature, arithmetic, history, and drama. It's the birthplace of democracy and also the Olympic Games. Ancient Greece is widely thought of as the cradle of Western civilization.

Climate of Europe

As Baron Verulam, the nice English Renaissance man of letters, capably determined, “Every wind has its weather.” It's atmospheric state circulation that gives the most key to Europe’s climate, the additional thus since lots of Atlantic origin will pass freely through the lowlands, except within the case of the Caledonian mountains of Norge. Polar air lots derived from areas on the point of Iceland and tropical lots from the island bring, severally, terribly conditions of temperature and wetness and manufacture different climatical effects as they move eastward. Continental air lots from jap Europe have equally easy accessibility westward. The virtually continuous belt of mountains trending west-east across Europe conjointly impedes the interchange of tropical and polar air lots.


Air pressure belts

Patterns of some duration dominant atmosphere circulation created by belts of gas pressure over 5 areas. They're the Icelandic low, over the North Atlantic; the Acores high, an aggressive ridge; the (winter) Mediterranean low; the Siberian high, centered over Central Asia in winter, however, extending westward; and also the Asiatic low, a nonaggressive season system over southwestern Asia. The winter westerlies, usually from the southwest, herald heat tropical air; in summer, against this, they veer to the northwest and convey in cooler Arctic or polar circle air. Those winds’ occasional projection westward explains outstandingly cold winters in western and central Europe, whereas exceptionally heat winters in this region result from the sustained flow of tropical maritime air plenty. The basin, however, experiences the new and dry north and northeast summer winds referred to as etesian by the traditional Greeks. In summer too, the Siberian high offers a place to a nonaggressive system extending westward, so westerly air plenty will penetrate deeply through the continent, creating summer typically a wet season.

It is thanks to the interaction of numerous different air plenty that Europe experiences extremely changeable weather. Winters get sharply colder eastward, however, summer temperatures relate fairly closely to latitude. Northwestern Europe, as well as Iceland, enjoys some improvement thanks to heat ocean current waters of the Atlantic, which, for instance, keep the Russian port of port open throughout the year.

Travel and tourism facts in Europe:

Europe is that the international leader in international touristry, with over 700 million inward tourists inbound within the region annually. The speed of growth accelerated within the 2010s, as several countries became a lot of mobiles. Though a welcome development, the rise in traveler numbers brought its challenges, as several destinations looked to seek out property ways that to deal with the high intensity of tourists. Regardless, the travel and touristry sector has had a positive impact on the EU economy. In 2019, AN calculable a pair of 2,191 billion euros was contributed by travel and touristry to European gross domestic product, although this range fell by throughout 2020 as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Meanwhile, the contribution of travel and touristry to the EU job market accounted for over thirty-eight million jobs in 2019, and nearly thirty-five million jobs in 2020, denoting a decrease of roughly 9% over the previous year thanks to the health crisis.

Tourism during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic facts in Europe

The travel business was one amongst the heaviest compact by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, which led to severe reductions within the variety of international tourists worldwide. The pandemic additionally affected domestic travel as stay-at-home orders were enacted to regulate the unfold of the virus.

At the start of the pandemic, the number of international tourer arrivals in Europe fell by 97% for all regions. By the start of 2021, tourer arrivals had still not nearly recovered to their previous levels, with Western and geographic area news the best reduction over the previous year. Europeans additionally weren't traveling abundant throughout the pandemic, with European departing travel forecast to call in over 60% for all regions in 2020.

Facts on the top 10 most visited countries in Europe

The newest information printed by the world organization World commercial enterprise Organization (UNWTO) shows that international traveler arrivals grew 6 June 1944 in 2018, totaling 1.4 billion, which was forecasted to be reached solely in 2020. In Europe alone were registered 710 million international traveler arrivals or regarding half the full variety. Southern and Mediterranean Europe drove the growth; but, the Western and Central European countries stay not solely the foremost visited in Europe but additionally the highest commercial enterprise destinations within the world.

1. France

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The world’s most visited country, France, isn't all regarding the Eifel Tower, museums and wine. For quite a decade currently, the country has lured the best range of tourists, quite the other European or world country. The explanations for that don't seem to be few. The country has such a range of commercial enterprise attractions that a year wouldn't be enough to visualize and knowledge everything that it's to supply.

France is standard for the various splendid and large palaces, castles, and cathedrals all across the country. The Palace of Versailles, the Castle of Chambord, and therefore the Notre-Dame Cathedral are a number of the foremost renowned.

Medieval villages such as Pérouges, St-Emilion, St-Jean Pied de Port, coastal villages, snow-capped mountains, picturesque beaches, and large outdoor markets have added France to their must-see list. Over 89 million guests alone visited the country in 2018, and therefore the numbers are believed to be abundant higher in 2018. France looks to be the highest world destination since 1995 once the country received over sixty million guests.

2. Spain

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Mostly settled on the Iberia, Spain is that the second most visited country in Europe. Around 82.7 million travelers stepped into Spain in 2018 alone, one million quite within the previous year.

Spain has forty-seven UN agency world heritage sites, varied beaches on the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and various festivals that assemble folks from all across the globe. Several have compared the coastal part of Spain with tropical islands.

The variety of foods, particularly the hot cake Espanola, Pisto, Paella, dish and different ancient foods have superimposed the worth of a visit to Spain.

Its soccer groups area unit among the foremost renowned within the world. It's calculable that the Copa Del Rey championship attracts thousands of tourists yearly.

3. Italy

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Home to a number of the foremost renowned buildings within the world, just like the amphitheater and the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy is that the third most visited country within the previous continent of Europe. A variety of 52.4 million guests entered the country in 2016, 58.3 million in 2017, and 62.1 million in 20218.

Home to various castles, palaces, cathedrals, vineyards, and beaches, the country is additionally known for its important art, design, and culture. The Vatican Museums are situated within the heart of Rome another attraction for several. Rome itself is that the third most visited town in Europe, once Paris and London. Florence, Venice, metropolis, and urban center are among the foremost visited cities in Italy.

4. Turkey

mosque-cami-prayer-istanbul-turkey

Istanbul is probably the dream of every traveler. Aimed at the fusion of Western and Eastern cultures, Stambul was founded in 660 BC and was referred to as Constantinople before the Ottomans conquered the city.

No traveler to Turkey can skip Stamboul. the town includes a distinctive mixture of Byzantine and Ottoman design, tasty middle eastern food, nice weather, and many friendly cats and dogs freely wandering across the town.

Turkey received 45.7 million in 2018, whereas in 2017 it counted a complete of 37.6 million tourists. Travelers fascinated by history especially visit the traditional Greek town of a metropolis, the Cappadocia rock valleys, the pure white travertine terraces of Pamukkale, the ruins of the previous Armenian capital Ani, and far a lot of.

A huge portion of the annual tourists who go to Turkey goes there to pay for their vacation in each of the many luxury hotels that you will notice in most of the big cities.

5. Germany

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One of the sturdiest economies within the world contains a strong commercial business additionally. An honest share of the German budget comes from tourism. In 2018, the European nation Germany had 38.8 million tourists, whereas, in 2017, 37.5 million guests entered the country.

It shares borders with the Scandinavian country Denmark to the north, the Republic of Poland and also the Czech Republic to the east, the Republic of Austria and European country to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg,  Belgium, and also the  Netherlands to the west. Travelers to any of those countries can simply access Germany by train or plane.

Germany contains a supply to curious travelers. The Cologne Cathedral, Reichstag building, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral, metropolis installation are a number of the buildings that attract most guests.

If you trip the European nation Germany at the correct time, you'll expertise events just like the Oktoberfest, the Cologne Carnival, the Berlinale fete, or the Unity Day.

 


6. The United Kingdom

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The modern era Kingdom of nice United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Northern Ireland consists of 4 constituent countries: European country, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The country has competed for a really necessary role throughout the history of Europe and also the world.

Castles, palaces, churches, and different buildings made in numerous periods of history standstill and attract several guests annually. Among the foremost visited ar Stonehenge, the Roman baths and Georgian town of Bath, town Cathedral, the Cotswolds, Richard Warwick Castle and also the Stirling Castle.

37.7 million travelers entered the country in 2017, 1.9 million quite the previous year, and but 600K less than in 2018. The quantity of tourists is specifically high throughout bank holidays and also the summer months.

 


7. Austria

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30.8 million travelers visited the European nation Austria in 2018. Whether or not you're hooked into art or nature, the European nation Austria offers you each.

With its gorgeous castles, most of that was created throughout the royal Habsburg reign, the Baroque castles and gardens, ruins and monuments qualitative analysis back to since the center Ages, many days or maybe weeks won't be enough to sneak a peek of the renowned Austrian buildings.

The Austrian Alps are well known as a winter sports attraction. The metropolis may be a must-visit for all those hooked into the sport, or those WHO wish to urge far from the busy town life.

 


8. Greece

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The cradle of Western culture, the Balkan nation of the Hellenic Republic hosts immeasurable guests per annum. It's been a holidaymaker attraction since antiquity. 27.2 million individuals visited the country in 2017, after 24.8 million guests within the previous year. In 2018 the quantity magnified to 30.1 million tourists.

Among the foremost illustrious spots for guests are the bastion, the monasteries of Meteora, the magical Delphi ruins, the Temple of Hephaestus, and lots of additional. The capital of Athens, Thessaloniki, Corfu, Santorini, and Crete are among the foremost visited cities and islands. There are over two hundred Greek islands that you simply will visit, every additional stunning than the opposite.

Food in Greece could be distinctive expertise itself. It's a mix of ancient Greek food influenced by Turkish and Italian culinary art. Greeks are particularly best-known for his or her food and cheese.

 


9. Russia


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The biggest country within the world is that the ninth most visited within the European continent. 24.5 million travelers visited Russian in 2018.

There are many amazing places to visit in Russia. Saint Basil’s Cathedral's place is like a fairy tale. The Hermitage Museum and the Kremlin also look like fairy tales. Buildings from Imperial Russia because the Bolshoi Theatre, the city Cathedral and also the Singer House gorgeous furthermore.

There are a lot of natural wonders, as Lake Baikal, Kizhi Island, the depression of Geysers, and Mount Elbrus. Russia's ski resorts are famous among the wonders of Europe.

 

10. Portugal


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22.8 million individuals visited the Portuguese Republic in 2018, principally fascinated by seeing the capital Lisbona, the town of Porto, Odemira, Faro, and also the town of Sintra.

There are many things to see and do in Portugal, from visiting old castles and palaces to surfing the ocean. The recent village of Sortelha, the Pena Palace, the Castle of the Moors, and also the historic fishing city of Cascais, and also the waterfalls of the island are among the items traveling to the Portuguese.

Portugal encompasses an outline of 1,794 km and shares its borders solely with Spain. It's beautiful beaches, crowded ones et all Beauty hidden. It's conjointly famed for the world-famous soccer players, who won the UEFA European Championship in 2016. 

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