Historic city of Rome, Colosseum history and amazing information

Colosseum

Historic city of Rome, Italy

Historic city of Rome, Italy

The Colosseum also called the Flavian Amphitheater, that is a huge amphitheater created in Rome under the Flavian emperors. Construction of the Colosseum began during the reign of Vespasian between 70 and 72 AD. It is located just east of the Palatine Mountains, which was the base of Nero's Golden House. Vespasian, whose path to the throne was a relatively humble beginning, chose to replace the oppressive emperor's private lake with a public amphitheater that could host thousands of Romans.

The structure was officially dedicated by Titus in 80 CE to comprise a 100-day game. Later, in 82 CE, Domitian completes the work by adding the above story. The three stories of the field are surrounded by arches framed on the outside by columns in Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders; The increasing arrangement of the columns of the structure became the basis of the Renaissance codification known as the assembly of orders. The main structural formation and facade are travertine, the subordinate walls are volcanic tufa, and the internal bowls and arches are of concrete.

The amphitheater housed almost 50,000 viewers, who were secure from the sun by a massive retractable velarium. The extending supporting mast, or attic, story, and hundreds of Roman sailors from the corbel built on top of the Colosseum were needed for the craft that stretched and retracted the velarium. The Colosseum was the scene of many great battles with gladiators fighting thousands of hands, competing between men and animals, and mocking the navy. Nonetheless, it is uncertain whether the arena was the site of the martyrdom of the early Christians.

In medieval periods, the Colosseum was used as a church, then as a castle by two principal Roman families, Franzipen and Annibaldi. The Colosseum was injured by lightning and earth tremors and, more harshly, by vandalism and pollution. All marble seats and decorative materials have disappeared, as the site has been considered a little more than an excavation for over 1,000 years. saving of the Colosseum started in earnest in the 19th century, with significant efforts led by Pius VIII and a restoration project launched in the 1990s. It has long existed as one of Rome's main tourist attractions, welcoming almost seven million guests annually. Variable presentations related to the culture of ancient Rome are regularly climbed.

Historic city of Rome, Italy
Why go

Everyone enjoys seeing the Colosseum, and it doesn’t disappoint, specifically if the armor is accompanied by a story of a gladiator and a ravenous lion. Better than any other monument, this iconic amphitheater embodies the power and drama of ancient Rome and is still an electrifying scene today. Opened in 80 CE, the 50,000-seat Colosseum, also called the Flavian Amphitheater, survives in exceptionally suitable shape. And it doesn't take a huge leap of imagination to portray it stylishly, with its steeply stacked stands full of crazy spectators as armored gladiators slug it into the ground below.

2000 years after, it is always Italy's highest traveler attraction point, Here attracting more than seven million tourists a year To avoid throngs, So good here go in the morning or delayed afternoon. Consider booking tickets online and make sure to go to the correct entry line - the fastest for those who already have tickets or passes purchased.

Historic city of Rome, Italy

History

Emperor Vespasian (r 69-79 CE) originally opened the amphitheater on the grounds of the huge Domas Aria Complex in Nero in 72 CE. Though he never survived to see it last, and it was completed by his son and inheritorTitus (R79-81) a year after his death. To mark its inauguration, Titus hosted the 100 Day and Night Permanent Games, during which about 5,000 animals were slaughtered. Trajan (R98-117) later topped it, organizing a 117-day marathon massacre with 9,000 gladiators and 10,000 animals.

The arena was named after the Vespasian family (Flavian) "Anfiteatro Flavio" and although it was Rome's most feared arena, it was not the largest - Sarco Massimo could hold 250,000 people. When the name "Colosseum" was raised in medieval periods, there was no mention of its stature, though it was near Colosso de Nero, a huge figure of Nero that was nearby.

The outer wall has three levels of arches, formed by ionic (bottom), Doric and Corinthian (top) orders, with ornamental columns at the top. These existed originally sheathed in travertine and the niches of the second and third stories were filled with marble statues. Upstairs, paved by windows and narrow Corinthian pillars, there was support for 240 masts that held the canopy over the ground, protecting visitors from the sun and rain. The 80 entrance arches, known as the "Vomitoria", allow visitors to enter and sit down within minutes.

The interior of the Colosseum was divided into three parts: stables, caves podiums. A wooden floor in the arena was covered with sand - "harena" in Latin, hence the word "arena" - to soak up the slippery and spilled blood of the warriors. Trappodors lead the underground chamber and arena to the passageway below the floor - the hypogeum (aka Soterreni del Colocio). The cave was divided into three levels for seating visitors: magistrates and higher officials at the lowest level, wealthy citizens in the middle and people at the highest level. Women (excluding Vestal Virgin) were relegated to the cheapest category at the top. The podium, a wide terrace in front of the seat level, was reserved for emperors, senators VIPs.

Top 10 facts about Rome:

v The Colosseum was built in the center of ancient Rome between 72 AD and 80 AD under Emperor Vespasian.

v This great monument made of stone and concrete was created with the manpower of thousands of slaves.

v  The Colosseum is the biggest amphitheater on the globe! In oval shape, it measures 189 meters prolonged, 156 meters broad and 50 meters tall. This ancient stadium could easily fit inside a modern-day football pitch!

v This glorious structure had 80 entrances and can seat almost 50,000 viewers who arrive to watch sports occasions and games. These affairs included gladiatorial fights, wildlife hunting and acknowledge it or not, naval wars on ships!

v Free for everyone! The main events of the Colosseum - often organized and paid for by the emperors - had no entrance fee. And free meals are sometimes served, too. Bonus! The emperors will use it as a way to gain popularity and support from the people.

v The Colosseum event was severely brutal, though - about 10,000 animals were killed in one day during some games held by the emperors.

v The first games were carried in 80 AD under Emperor Titus (son of Vespasian) and they are last for 100 days. Games Tends to be held for centuries to come - gladiatorial games until the 5th-century and animal hunting until the 6th-century.

v To protect visitors from the blistering sun and heat of ancient Rome, there was a velarium - a canopy that could be pulled over the seating area to provide shade. Clever, isn't it?

v Below the Colosseum were numerous chambers and underground passages. Animals and gladiators were kept here, waiting for their fate to be fulfilled in the upper courtyard. The arena also had 36 trap doors for special effects!

v Though two-thirds of the Colosseum has been destroyed over time - especially by vandalism, earth temblor and fires - it is a popular traveler destination today, attracting thousands of Attracts people every year!

Recommended: Facts about Paris


The secret of the Colosseum

The Colosseum floor, where you can expect to see a smooth elliptical of sand, is instead a giant thumbprint-like concentric ring, a whirlpool and a wonderful arrangement of chamber-shaped masonry walls. The confusion is exacerbated by the descent of a long staircase to the east end of the stadium and the entry into the ruins of a wooden floor that has been used by the arena for nearly five centuries, beginning with its inauguration in the 80's. The flag is high in the rocks; caper and fig trees sprout from the bare walls, which are a patchwork of travertine slabs, tufa blocks and brickwork.

From the Greek word "underground" - spent most of the last 14 years deciphering the best hypogeum - and this past September I had a great maze with him.

He put his hand on the brick masonry. He else that the groove created an area for the four arms of a cross-shaped, vertical winch called a capstan. The Capstan post rested in a hole that Best pointed with his toes.

An expert in historical buildings trained as an architect and knowledgeable in Greek and Roman archeology, Best can best be described as a forensic engineer. By examining the skeletal remains of the hypogeum and reconstructing the complex equipment at the bottom of the Colosseum, he demonstrated the system's creativity and precision, as well as its central role in the huge spectacles of imperial Rome.

The chaos reflects almost 1,500 years of neglected and haphazard construction projects, layered on top of each other. After the ultimate battler spectacles were held within the sixth century, The Romans upraised stones from the amphitheater, that bit by bit committed suicide in earthquakes and gravity. For centuries, people have filled the hypogeum with soil and waste, grew vegetable gardens, gathered hay, and abandoned animal dung. In the upper amphitheater, huge arched passages sheltered cobblers, blacksmiths, priests, glue makers, and money changers, not to mention a fortress of the 12th-century warriorFrangipane. Until then, regional legends and pilgrim guide books include described the split ring on the borders of the amphitheater as an ancient temple of the sun. The necromancers went there at night to summon the demons.

Towards the end of the 16th century, Pope Sixtus V, the builder of Renaissance Rome, tried to transform the Colosseum into a woolen factory, with workshops on the arena floor and accommodation in the stories above. But due to huge expenses, the project was abandoned after his death in 1590.

By the early 19th century, the floor of the Hypogeum was buried about 40 feet below the ground, and all memories of its effectiveness - even its existence - were erased. Finally, within the Thirties, below Benito Mussolini's glorification of classical Rome, employees removed the earth's hypogeum permanently.

Beste and his colleagues spent four years mistreatment tape, plumb line, indicator and much paper and pencil to form technical drawings for the complete hypogeum. "Today we'll most likely use an optical maser scanner for this purpose, however, if we tend to do, we'll fully miss the old-style art that provides you pencil and paper," Best aforesaid. "When you draw this slow, endless drawing, you focus most that what you see goes deep into the brain. Gradually, as you work, the image of how things were formed takes shape in your subconscious."

Unveiling the site's complex history, Best has identified four major building phases and numerous changes in nearly 400 years of continuous use. The architects of the Colosseum made some changes to allow for a new approach to stagecraft. Other changes were short; In 217 AD a thunderbolt destroyed the theater and submerged huge blocks of travertine in the hypogeum. Having a solid foundation in Roman mechanical engineering from excavations in southern Italy, Best also began to understand the strange signs and intersections of masonry, where he learned about catapults and other Roman war machines. He also studied the storks that the Romans used to move large objects, such as 18-foot-tall marble blocks.

By applying his data to the looker accounts of the coliseum games, Best was ready to interact in some deductive reverse engineering. The paired vertical channels that he found on bound walls, for instance, appear to be the tracks to guide the cage or different components between the hypogeum and also the arena. He had been performing on the positioning for a few years before he realized that the distinctive curved slices of the wall close to the vertical channels were most likely created to make room for the rotating bars of the massive capstans that upraised the cages and platforms up and down. Other archeological elements then fell into place, such as holes in the floor, with some smooth bronze collars, diagonal indentations for the capstan shaft and for the ramps. There was also a square mortise that held the horizontal beam, which supported both the capstan and the flooring in the stories above and below the hypogeum.

To test his ideas, Best created three scale models. At the top of the operation, he concluded, the hypogeum has 60 capstans, each two stories long and turned by four men on each level. Forty of these capstans housed animal cages throughout the courtyard, while the remaining 20 were used to enhance the scenes while sitting on hinged platforms measuring 12 by 15 feet.

The Best Arena has identified 28 small platforms (approximately 3 by 3 feet) around the outer rim - also used for scenery - that were operated by a system of cables, ramps, hosts and counterweights. He even discovered signs of a flowing canal, which he believed was used for naval warfare after the Colosseum was flooded by a nearby water channel. The Romans re-enacted these naval deployments by tactical scale-down warships in three to five feet deep waters. To create this artificial lake, the Colosseum Stagehands initially take away the arena floor and its underlying picket supports - the vertical posts and horizontal beams that also leave an apparent impression on the wall that surrounds the arena floor.

Historic city of Rome, Italy

Beste says the hypogeum itself had a lot in common with a giant sailing ship. In the underground staging area "countless ropes, pulleys and alternative wood and metal processes were unbroken during a} very restricted house, all requiring endless coaching and drilling to run swimmingly throughout a show. sort of a ship, everything may be disassembled and clearly keep once used Not happening. " of these tricks served one purpose: - to thrill the audience and to make sure the success of the shows that area unit each a celebration of the glory of Rome and therefore the embodiment.

Outside the pale wooden floor separating the dark, suffocating hypogeum from the upper airy stadium, crowds of 50,000 Romans sat in their place in the social hierarchy, ranging from upper bleacher slaves and women to senators and vestal virgins - priests. Vestar, the goddess of the hearth—around the arena floor.

The official visit, known as the Munas Istum Attack Legitimam ("a proper and legitimate gladiator show"), like many public events in classical Rome, began with a gorgeous morning procession, the Pampa. It was run by editors-in-chief and typically featured cars carrying trumpets, performers, warriors, priests, nobles, and idols of the gods. (Disappointingly, the gladiators do not seem to address the emperor with the legendary phrase, "We salute you who are about to die", which is mentioned only with a vision - a naval battle on a lake before Rome in 52 AD - and perhaps instead of an ideal address.) There was some inspirational improvisation.)

The first major episode of the game was Venatio, or the hunting of wild animals, which occupied most of the morning: animals from all over the empire appeared in the arena, sometimes as part of a bloodless parade, often killed. The literary and epigraphic descriptions of these spectacles depend on the exotic herbivores involved, such as elephants, rhinos, hippopotamuses and giraffes, bears and exotic herbivores, as well as exotic herbivores. The most popular were leopards, lions and tigers — Denta (toothed) or Bastia African (African beast) —who needed to be protected by spectators for their jumping ability, some were fitted with ivory rollers to prevent visually disturbed cats. The number of animals displayed and slaughtered on a higher Venetio is astonishing: during a series of games held for the opening of the Colosseum, in 80 AD, Emperor Titus presented 9,000 animals. Less than 30 years later, in the games in which Emperor Trajan celebrated the victory of his Dacians (Romanian ancestors), about 11,000 animals were slaughtered.

hypogeum played an important role in this stage hunt, allowing animals and predators to enter the field in countless ways. Eyewitnesses described how the creatures suddenly appeared from below, as if by magic, sometimes apparently soaring into the air.

During the mezzo between the hunters, the spectators were treated to a variety of sensual pleasures. The handsome stewards walked through the crowd carrying cakes, pastries, dates and other trays of sweet and generous cups of wine. Snacks also rained down like hail from the sky, one observer noted, with wooden balls containing tokens for rewards - food, money or even the title of an apartment - which sometimes sparked violent clashes between spectators struggling to grab them. On hot days, listeners can enjoy the scent of separation ("scattering"), balsam or saffron-scented mist or vela, a huge cloth canopy painted on the roof of the Colosseum by sailors at the Roman naval headquarters in Misenam near Naples...

At the Ludi Meridiani, or Midday Game, criminals, barbarians, prisoners of war and other miscreants who were called oppressors, or "condemned," were sentenced to death. Others were sent what a modern scholar called a "deadly charade", a death sentence similar to a mythical scene. The Roman poet Marshall, who took part in the opening game, described that a criminal dressed as Orpheus was playing the harp in the wild; A bear tore him apart. Another fell victim to the fate of Hercules, who was burned to death before becoming a god.

Historic city of Rome, Italy

Here, too, the strong lift of the hypogeum’s, hidden ramps, and other mechanisms were important for creating illusions. Marshall wrote, "The rocks have fallen, and what a spectacular sight! A wood, like the grove of Hesperide [supposed to be the nymphs guarding the mythical golden apple], ran away."

The key event came after the execution: the gladiators. Some gladiators belong to certain classes, each with its own equipment, fighting style, and traditional opponents. A retiarius (or "Net Man"), for example, with his heavy net, trident, and dagger often fought with a sword against a securer ("follower") and wore a helmet with a mask that only kept his eyes open.

Competitors adhere to the rules applied by the referee; If a warrior concedes defeat, usually by raising his left index finger, his fate is determined by the editor, the voice of the crowd, who shouts "Miss!" Shouts. ("Dismissed!") Those who fought valiantly and "Igula, Verbera, Ure!" ("Cut his throat, beat him, burn him!") Those they thought were worthy of death. The gladiators who literally got the thumbs down were expected to take a final blow from their opponents uninterruptedly. The winning gladiator collected prizes which may include a palm of victory, cash and a crown for special heroism. Because the emperor himself was often the organizer of the games, everything had to run smoothly. The Roman historian and biographer Suetonius wrote that if the technologists showed any signs of improvement, Emperor Claudius might send them to the field: Competition, or anything else that doesn't work out well. "Or, as Best says," the emperor threw out this big party and wanted the catering to go smoothly. If that doesn't happen, it's time to dump her and move on. "

The slain wild animals symbolize how Rome conquered wild, distant lands and subdued nature. The unrepentant power of justice made the death penalty dramatic which destroyed the enemies of the state. Gladiators embody the original Roman virtue of virtue, or masculinity, whether victorious or defeated, with Stoic dignity awaiting death. Mary Beard, a classical historian at Cambridge University, said, "We know it was scary," but at the same time people were looking to revive the myth in a way that vividly and terribly affected your appearance. It was theater, cinema, maya and reality, all intertwined. "

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