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Red Square, Moscow, Russia attraction. UNESCO World Heritage Site

Red Square, Moscow

Russia tourist attraction

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Red Square, Moscow, Russia attraction. UNESCO World Heritage Site

Red Square is one of the oldest and largest squares in the Russian capital Moscow. Due to its historical importance and the adjacent historic buildings, it is considered one of the most famous squares in Europe and the world. It is located in the historical center of Moscow, on the eastern wall of the Kremlin. It is a Moscow city landmark with iconic buildings such as St. Basil's Cathedral, Lenin's Mausoleum and GEM. Additionally, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.

Red Square has an almost rectangular shape and is 70 meters wide and 330 meters long. It stretches a long way from northwest to southeast along the part of the Kremlin wall that forms its border on the southwest side. To the northeast, the square is bounded by the GUM department store building and the old district of Kitai-Goro, the State Historical Museum and Resurrection Gate to the northwest, and St. Basil's Cathedral to the southeast. Tverskaya Street begins in the northwest of the square behind the building of the State Historical Museum and in the southeast the so-called Basilius slope, which leads to the Moskva River, which descends over a bridge in the Zamoskvorechye district. Two streets run northeast from Red Square: Nikolskaya Street, named after the Kremlin's Nicholas Tower, directly opposite, and Ilyinka (Ильинка), both dating from the 14th century and once important. Artery of old Moscow. Today the square itself is a pedestrian zone, except for the road leading to the Kremlin's Savior Gate.

Red Square, Moscow, Russia attraction. UNESCO World Heritage Site

Venue for the parade

The two most notable military parades in Red Square were the October Revolution Parade in 1941, when the city was besieged by the Germans and soldiers marched straight from Red Square to the front line, and the Victory Parade in 1945, when the banners of the defeated Nazi army were carried. Thrown at the foot of Lenin's tomb. The Soviet Union held many parades in Red Square for May Day (until 1969), Victory Day, and October Revolution Day, which included propaganda, flags, labor demonstrations, marching troops, and tank and missile displays. Private parades have been held on Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February 1925), Tankman's Day (8 September 1946), and Joseph Stalin's state funeral (9 March 1953). On Victory Day in 1945, 1965, 1985 and 1990, there were also Soviet military marches and parades, and since 1995 the annual Moscow Victory Day Parade has been held on the square to mark the anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany the second war.

Red Square, Moscow, Russia attraction. UNESCO World Heritage Site

Notable buildings and monument

State Historical Museum: The striking dark red building of the State Historical Museum forms the northwestern end of Red Square. It was built in 1875-1883 and is therefore a small element of the architectural ensemble of Red Square.

Resurrection Gate: The Resurrection Gate forms one of the two entrances to Red Square from the northwest side. First built in 1680, the structure was initially part of the Kitai-Gorod fortress. At its base it consists of two arched portals, crowned in a symmetrical manner by two rectangular towers, the tops of which are strongly reminiscent of the Kremlin towers.

Former Government Administration: The building standing between Resurrection Gate and Kazan Cathedral is one of Red Square's less spectacular buildings. It was built between 1733 and 1740 and has since served as the administrative office of the city of Moscow and the headquarters of the Moscow Governorate.

Kazan Cathedral: Kazan Cathedral is to the right of the former government administration building, on the corner of Red Square and Nikolskaya Street. Today's cathedral is a replica of 1993; Originally there was a church on the site from 1620, first a wooden one, then a stone one from 1636.

GUM Department Store: The GUM Department Store, located on the eastern side of the square, occupies the entire section between Nikolskaya and Ilinka streets. Due to its direct location on Red Square and its significant size, the sales area is approximately 35,000 square meters (380,000 sq ft). Due to the striking architecture of the building, GUM is the best-known shopping center in Russia.

Middle Trade Row: At the easternmost point of the square, the building at the corner of Ilinka Street is exactly where the Middle Trade Row stood in the 17th century. These formed, along with the trading rows above, where today's GUM department store is located, part of the larger market trading area that helped shape the Kitay-gorod district adjacent to Red Square.

Lobnoye Mesto: Lobnoye Mesto is a round, grandstand-like structure built of white stone in the southeast part of the square, in front of St. Basil's Cathedral. At the same time, it is one of the oldest buildings in the square that have been documented to date.

Monuments to Minin and Pozharsky: Monuments to two Russian national heroes, Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitri Pozharsky, erected between 1812 and 1818, stand directly in front of St. Basil's Cathedral. Similar to the donation of the Kazan Cathedral at the time in the northern part of the square, this monument also commemorates the liberation of Moscow from the Polish-Lithuanian occupying forces in 1612, in which the Popular Army led by Minin and Pozharsky made the decisive contribution.

St. Basil's Cathedral: St. Basil's Cathedral, which borders the square on its southern side, is undoubtedly one of the square's most famous buildings and one of Russia's cultural icons. Once, the church was the main place of worship in Moscow, but today the cathedral functions mainly as a museum, which is part of the State Historical Museum complex. Since the early 1990s, services have been held in the cathedral at sometimes irregular intervals.

East Kremlin Wall: The eastern part of the Kremlin Wall, and Red Square behind it, emerged in its present location during the reign of Ivan III in the 15th century; [10] The wall and the square were separated by a wide defensive moat filled with water diverted from the Neglinnaya River. The moat was lined with a secondary fortress wall and spanned by three bridges connecting the Kremlin to the Posad.

Lenin's Mausoleum: An important Soviet-era monument is Lenin's Mausoleum, located on the western side of the square. It stands next to the Kremlin wall at the height of the Senate Tower, almost exactly where the defensive moat ran until the 18th century and a tram line ran from 1909 to 1930. Inside the mausoleum, lies the enormous body of Vladimir Lenin. Armored glass sarcophagus. To this day, the tomb remains open to visitors on certain days.

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